There are certain fundamental considerations that should be understood in relation to open recirculated systems, starting with the concept of cycles of concentration. If three cups of boiling water in a tea kettle were allowed to boil away to one cup, the residual cup would contain a three-fold concentration of soluble water salts, assuming that only steam was driven off.
The greatest use of high-temperature water and steam is in electrical power generation. Historically, fossil fuels were used almost exclusively to heat water and make steam until the introduction of nuclear power steam generators in the second part of the 20th century.
Corrosion Basics don’t get any more basic than the definition of corrosion as the deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Almost all materials should be expected to deteriorate, to some extent, with time when exposed to the elements. Corrosion is a perfectly natural process, as natural as water flowing downhill.
Although the corrosion rate of bare steel tends to decrease with time in most cases, the difference in corrosivity of different atmospheres for a particular alloy is tremendous.
Steel is fairly uniform in texture, and workers are familiar with the proper ways to prepare and coat it. In contrast, concrete is quite porous and uneven in texture, with differences in density from one square inch to the next.
Corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete is a worldwide problem that causes a range of economic, aesthetic, and utilization issues. However, if corrosion effects are considered in the design phase and the right decisions are made prior to construction, buildings can be constructed to resist corrosion.
Want to know how you can become more active in NACE? There are many opportunities for NACE members to volunteer, and the technical committees offer many benefits such as having an impact on industry standards, developing a network of peers, and enhancing your career.
NACE International has embarked on a study—IMPACT—that goes beyond the economic effects of corrosion; it emphasizes how to integrate corrosion technology with organizational management systems to optimize corrosion decisions with respect to both cost savings and concern for safety and the environment.
Pipe wrapping turned out to be a simple and low-cost method for strengthening concrete columns during the construction of a new natural gas plant in Colorado.
Underground storage tank (UST) owners and operators must follow correct filling practices and protect their USTs from spills, overfills, and corrosion. Additionally, owners and operators must report the existence of new UST systems, suspected releases, UST system closures, and keep records of operation and maintenance.
Safety, function, and service life should be a part of every project. To address these parameters, consideration must be given to design, choice of materials, construction methods, active and passive surface protection, and other parameters.
NACE International’s International Measures of Prevention, Application, and Economics of Corrosion (IMPACT) study is nearing completion and will be released in March 2016. A segment of the report focuses on the Corrosion Management System Framework and how a company can incorporate one into its own program.
Ships and barges need a certain amount of water depth to safely load and unload product, so most facilities use jetties to enable vessels to moor in deeper water. The use of carbon steel, however, opens up the risk of internal corrosion.
After 10 years of normal operation, a hydraulic circulation pipeline of a subsea gas production well failed at its bend zone due to internal localized corrosion attack. This appears to be related to crevice corrosion and pitting.
A variety of industrial facilities with structures constructed of carbon steel are at risk of corrosion. An inorganic spray-on protective coating technology provides corrosion protection to metal through a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic.